Typically in a Shanghai classroom, students are fully occupied and fully engaged. Non-attentive students are not tolerated. Homework is an essential part of students’ learning activities. Parents expect students to do homework every evening and are prepared to devote their family lives to their children’s studies. Students are also obliged to take part in all kinds of other activities, including at least one hour per day of physical education.
In parallel, Shanghai raised the bar for entry to the teaching profession. All primary school teachers must have a diploma and all teachers in secondary schools are degree-holders with professional certification. Many teachers have Master’s degrees. Shanghai was the first district in China to require continuous professional development for teachers. Every teacher is expected to engage in 240 hours of professional development within five years.
Chinese society sets a high premium on education, but a traditional emphasis on examinations acts both as an incentive to learn and a barrier to independent learning. Shanghai, one of China’s most vibrant economies, has long been a leader in educational reform, introducing innovations that are closely watched in the rest of China.
– In the 1980s, Shanghai was one of the first Chinese cities to achieve universal primary and junior secondary education. It was also among the first to achieve almost universal senior secondary education.
– Shanghai has a strong economic interest in providing good education for the children of migrant workers from other parts of China, often with different linguistic backgrounds. In 2006, migrant children accounted for an estimated 21.4% of Shanghai’s student population at the basic education level.
– An estimated four Shanghai children out of five attend after-school tutorial groups to help them prepare for exams. Parents see such tutorial schools as essential for enabling students to do well in the public examinations that determine the next stage in their educational career.
Vídeo sobre a educação na China (Xangai)